With nanotechnology, fuel transforms at the nano-level to achieve a more complete combustion, resulting in increased fuel economy, more driving power, and fewer pollutive emissions.
NANO technology with all its challenges and opportunities is an avoidable part of our future. Fig 7 Needle Valve Components Again, apart from their size, there's nothing special about the needle valve components the needle itself was made from steel and "blued" it by a quick heat in a gas flame followed by water quenching.
Another jig not shown is made to hold the shaft in the 3-jaw chuck, offset by half the throw for forming the crank pin.
American engine builder Ron Colona used to demo his at model engineering shows and turning at better than 20, rpm. In this first shot, the backplate profile has been turned on a piece of bar stock with the interior face oriented towards the tailstock.
No big deal, but the amazing thing is the attention it draws with people who examine the engine. In race cars this IC Nano Engine was used. This allows the saddle to be repositioned for the next cutting pass without having to twiddle dials and remember settings.
The prop driver knurls were formed with a thread form tool, set on edge and used as a shaper. Here we see the reamer being floated into the bore using the tailstock larger hand reamers will have a dimple in the end which assists this operation.