In their landmark study, Caspi and colleagues [ 43 ] revealed how specific genetic polymorphisms moderate abuse experiences and explain differential antisocial outcomes.
Comparing the findings from these two important and different data sources does not answer the question about whether police arrest black youth inappropriately or excessively.
Examining Risk Factors to Account For Racial Disparity There is scant research that examines the extent to which risk factors explain racial disparity.
Even one type of adverse childhood experience can be the driving force in propelling a youth toward delinquent and other antisocial conduct. Racial disparities persist both in states with relatively large and relatively small populations of youth of color. For example, gang activities vary by community Curry and Spergel, ; Horowitz, Proportionately more black juveniles reside in urban areas and therefore are exposed to a greater likelihood of formal processing.
These data reveal a residential placement rate that is 1. Source: U. Across models, these inconsistent effects were common. For white juveniles, the rate fell by 51 percent to 69 per; for black juveniles, it fell 43 percent to perAdjudication decisions are transferred to the adult court in some situations.
Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences ACE Study.