Hypodermic syringe model sees media audience passive and e
These people usually have strong ideas about a range of matters. Some feminist sociologists, e.
Hypodermic needle theory examples
Why shouldn't the media hire the 'opinion leaders' as agents?? The study was conducted to determine voting patterns and the relationship between the media and political power. Feedback stated simply is information being relay They concluded on the basis of this experiment that violent media content could lead to imitation or copycat violence. Furedi argues that moral panics arise when society fails to adapt to dramatic social changes and it is felt that there is a loss of control, especially over powerless groups such as the young. The hypodermic syringe approach to media effects believes that a direct correlation exists between the violence and anti-social behaviour portrayed in films, on television, in computer games, in rap lyrics, etc. The "magic bullet" and "hypodermic needle" models originate from Harold Lasswell 's book, Propaganda Technique in the World War. It expresses the view that the media is a dangerous means of communicating an idea because the receiver or audience is powerless to resist the impact of the message. Gerbner sees a cause-effect relationship between screen violence and real-life violence. Wood illustrated how teenagers may use horror films to gratify their need for excitement. Marxists believe that television content, in particular, has been deliberately dumbed down and this has resulted in a decline in serious programmes such as news, documentaries and drama that might make audiences think critically about the state of the world. This is known as catharsis. These beliefs have led to increased state control over and censorship of the media in Britain. There is no guarantee that the opinion leader has not been subjected to an imitative or desensitising effect, e. However, what the audience chooses depends upon their interests, education, work commitments and so on.
Sociologists f The uses and gratifications model Blumler and McQuail and Lull see media audiences as active. Start studying Sociology Media. Therefore, Lazarsfeld concluded that the effects of the campaign were not all powerful to the point where they completely persuaded "helpless audiences", a claim that the Magic Bullet, Hypodermic Needle Model, and Lasswell asserted.
Magic bullet theory essay
Audiences are not blank sheets of paper on which media messages can be written; members of an audience will have prior attitudes and beliefs, which will determine how effective media messages are. Research by Morrison suggests that the context in which screen violence occurs affects its impact on the audience. Cumberbatch looked at over research studies into the effects of screen violence, encompassing film, television, video and more recently, computer and video games. The social problems, however, do not disappear — they remain dormant until journalists decide at some future date that they can be made newsworthy again and attract a large audience. Another criticism is that of the tendency to concentrate solely on why audiences consume the media rather than extending the investigation to discover what meanings and interpretations are produced and in what circumstances, i. The methodological critique of the hypodermic syringe model Gauntlett argues that people, especially children, do not behave as naturally under laboratory conditions as they would in their everyday environment, e. Instead, interpersonal outlets proved more influential than the media. Even if they do, how will it affect their behaviour, if indeed it does? Katz and Lazarsfeld suggest that media messages have to go through two steps or stages. This model probably has more relevance to post-modern society than the hypodermic syringe model because it accepts that people question what they see and hear from the media, and they use their personal experiences to colour their interpretations of the meaning of the media. Can directly affect its passive audience. Pluralists believe that the audience is active. Greg Philo studied audience response to television news coverage of a Miner's Strike and found that there were differences in group interpretations of the event, with all groups processing the news according to their beliefs and biases; for example, groups supporting the miners felt that the behaviour of the police was inaccurately reported whereas groups supporting the police felt that the behaviour of the miners was inaccurately reported. It suggests a Pluralist perspective that we get the media we deserve.
Critique of the hypodermic syringe model A number of critiques have developed of the imitation-desensitisation model of media effects, e.
Other sociologists have researched theories that look at different circumstances that exist in viewing audiences; these theories are otherwise known as active audience models.
After studying this section, you should be able to understand: the evidence relating to the relationship between screen violence and violence in real life active audience approaches the process of moral panics Mass media effects: the relationship between screen violence and real-life violence Influential psychologists, pressure groups, religious leaders and politicians have suggested that there is a direct causal link between violence in films, television programmes and computer games and violent real-life crime. However, problems with this model is that it tends to view the individual as a passive member of a large audience with no will or opinions of their own; it disregards other factors and differences in individual reception of media messages. War of the Worlds In the s, a radio broadcast of War of the Worlds was performed like a real news broadcast to heighten the effect of the story. Newson suggested that such prolonged exposure to media violence may have a drip-drip effect on young people over the course of their childhood and result in their becoming desensitised to violence. The study was conducted to determine voting patterns and the relationship between the media and political power. It is the channels of communication through which messages flow. It performs three key f However, this incident actually sparked the research movement, led by Paul Lazarsfeld and Herta Herzog , that would disprove the magic bullet or hypodermic needle theory, as Hadley Cantril managed to show that reactions to the broadcast were, in fact, diverse, and were largely determined by situational and attitudinal attributes of the listeners. This model is only a little less worse than the hypodermic syringe model, as the latter assumes that we act and think according to what the media tells us whereas the former assumes that we act and think according to what our 'opinion leaders' tell us.
Newson argues that they see violence as a normal problem-solving device and concluded that, because of this, the latest generation of young people subscribe to weaker moral codes and are more likely to behave in anti-social ways than previous generations.
KEY POINT - Sociologists have argued that media content can have a direct effect upon their audiences and trigger particular social responses in terms of behaviour and attitudes.
The theory assumes we are brainwashed into believing the media messages.
The model suggests that. It suggests a Pluralist perspective that we get the media we deserve. Imitation or copycat violence Early studies of the relationship between the media and violence focused on conducting experiments in laboratories, e.
Hypodermic needle theory criticism
The hypodermic model of media violence The hypodermic syringe approach to media effects believes that a direct correlation exists between the violence and anti-social behaviour portrayed in films, on television, in computer games, in rap lyrics, etc. The hypodermic syringe model is a theory of media effect on audience. This is known as catharsis. Some people even have alternative lives and identities as avatars on websites such as Second Life. Surely if the hypodermic syringe model is not a true expression of the media experience then the two-step flow model is merely an extension of the same? Why do moral panics occur? The uses and gratifications model Blumler and McQuail and Lull see media audiences as active. Television channels often resorted to issuing warnings before films and even edited out violence themselves or beeped over bad language. Television too was affected by this climate of censorship. Media messages can have no effect if no one sees or hears them. By Jabberwocky19 Nov 21, Words Cite The hypodermic syringe model is a theory of media effect on audience. Research by Morrison suggests that the context in which screen violence occurs affects its impact on the audience. Television channels often resorted to issuing warnings before films and even edited out violence themselves or beeped over bad language. The public essentially cannot escape from the media's influence, and is therefore considered a "sitting duck". Marxists argue that media content contains strong ideological messages that reflect the values of those who own, control and produce the media.
What is a moral panic?
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